- Analysis & Instrumentation
- Cleaning, Polishing & Grinding
- Coating & Surface Treatment
- Controlled & Modified Atmospheres
- Cutting & Joining
- Freezing & Cooling
- Inerting, Purging & Blanketing
- Melting & Heating
- Petrochemical Processing & Refining
- Pharma & Biotechnology
- Plastics & Rubber Processing
- Process Chemistry
- Water & Soil Treatment
During carbonation, carbon dioxide (CO2) is added to the product in a carbonator, where vaporised carbon dioxide is mixed under pressure with temperature controlled water. Syrup, sweetener and other ingredients are then added.
Soft drinks generally use 3.5–4.2 volumes of carbon dioxide per volume of soda colas use higher carbonation levels and fruit flavours (e.g lemon and orange) typically use lower ones. Levels are determined by using the carbonator’s pressure and temperature values and consulting a water/CO2 solubility chart.