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At its Répcelak plant, Linde Gas Hungary Co.Cltd. draws a large amount of naturally occurring carbon dioxide. After the removal of various contaminants (water, hydrocarbons, etc.) from the raw product, high-purity carbon dioxide is produced. At atmospheric pressure, carbon dioxide is a gas.
Depending on its pressure and temperature, carbon dioxide can exist in one of three states:
Dry ice packaging
Dry ice slush: It is similar to traditional snow, and has short storage life.
Dry ice pellets: The standard 3 mm pellets look like rice grains. These high-density pellets are mainly used for dry ice cleaning, and in the food industry.
Dry ice nuggets: The large dry ice pieces with a diameter of 6-19 mm are used for packaging and transportation of food. Since they have long storage life, they sublimate less during transportation.
Dry ice blocks: The application area of dry ice blocks is dry ice cleaning.
Dry ice is produced from liquid CO2 to produce 1 kg of dry ice, 2.5 kg of carbon-dioxide are necessary. Carbon dioxide is liquefied at a pressure of 5.1 bar, then it is filled into cylinders in this liquid state for storage. The rapid evaporation that takes place through sublimation when the pressure of liquid carbon dioxide is reduced suddenly cools it down to such an extent that it freezes and turns into a fine, powdery snow, from which dry ice is obtained through compression. Compressed snow is shaped into blocks or extruded under pressure into pellets or nuggets. Although dry ice has an appearance very similar to regular ice, their properties differ considerably.
- does not contain water
- three times colder than water ice
- taste- and odorless
- due to sublimation, no final product is produced
- is not poisonous in small amounts of germs and bacteria
- is heavier than air
- has no electric charge (dipolar)
- is non-reactive (does not enter into reaction with its environment)
Physical characteristics (CO2 and dry ice)
|Sublimation temperature (point)||-78,5 oC|
|Sublimation energy||573 KJ|
1 kg dry ice = 540 l CO2 gas
|The density of dry ice||
1.2 – 1.6 kg/ dm3
|CO2 density (20 oC)||
|Weight compared with air (CO2)||
1.5 times heavier
|Poison value||min. 0,5%|
|Refrigeration capacity of dry ice||
3.3 times colder than water